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Definitive Listings

If you don't find the ingredient here, check the Animal Ingredients Chapter or the Possibly Animal Derived chapterin this book. If you still don't find the ingredient that you're unsure about, try a dictionary or use your best judgement.

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W

ACETATE: Retinol. Vitamin A. Palmitate (see Palmitic Acid). An aliphatic alcohol. Can come from fish liver oil (ie. shark liver oil), egg yolks, butter, lemongrass, wheat germ oil, carotene in carrots, etc., synthetics. In cosmetics, creams, perfumes, hair dyes, vitamins, supplements.

ADRENALINE: From the adrenals of hogs, cattle and sheep. In medicines. Alternatives: synthetics

AFTERBIRTH: Placenta. Placenta Polypeptides Protein. Contains waste matter eliminated by the fetus. Derived from the uterus of slaughtered animals. Animal, placenta is widely used in skin creams, shampoos, masks, etc. Doesn't remove wrinkles. Alternatives: kelp, vegetable oils.

ALBUMEN: Egg Albumen. Albumin. In eggs, milk, muscles, blood and in many vegetable tissues and fluids. In cosmetics, albumin is usually derived from egg whites. May cause allergic reactions. In cakes, cookies, candies, other foods. Egg whites sometimes used in "clearing" wines.

ALBUMIN: See Albumen.


ALLANTOIN: A uric acid from cows, most mammals. Also in many plants (especially comfrey). In cosmetics, especially creams & lotions, and used in the treatment of wounds and skin ulcers.

AMBERGRIS: From sperm whale intestines. Used as a fixative in perfumes and as a flavoring in foods and beverages. (US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients derived from marine mammals.) Alternatives: synthetic and vegetable fixatives.

AMINO ACIDS: Animal or plant sources. In cosmetics, vitamins, supplements, shampoos, etc.

AMINOSUCCINATE ACID: DL and L forms. Aspartic Acid. Can be animal or plant (ie. molasses) source. Is a nonessential amino acid. In creams and ointments. Sometimes synthesized for commercial purposes.

AMYLASE: An enzyme prepared from the pancreas of hogs. In cosmetics and Inedicines.

ANIMAL BONES: Bone Meal. In some fertilizers, some vitamins and supplements as a source of calcium, also in toothpastes. Alternatives: plant mulch, vegetable compost, dolomite, clay, vegetarian vitamins.

ANIMAL OILS AND FATS: In foods, cosmetics, etc. Highly allergenic. Plant derivatives are superior. Alternatives: olive oil, wheat germ oil, coconut oil, almond oil, safflower oil, etc.

ARACHIDONIC ACID: A liquid unsaturated fatty acid occurring in the liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals. Generally isolated from the liver. In skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes.

ASPARTIC ACID: See Aminosuccinate Acid.

ASPIC: An industry alternative for gelatin. Is made from clarified meat, fish or vegetable stocks and gelatin.

BEE POLLEN: Collected from the legs of bees. Causes allergic reactions in some people. In supplements, shampoos, toothpastes, deodorants. Too concentrated for human use.

BEE PRODUCTS: From bees. For bees. Bees are selectively bred. Culls are killed. A cheap sugar is substituted for their stolen honey and millions die as a result. Their legs are often torn off by pollen-collecting trap doors.

BEESWAX: Obtained from the honeycomb of bees. Very cheap and traditional, but harmful to the skin. Some companies won't use beeswax as it doesn't permit the skin to breathe. In lipsticks and many other cosmetics, especially face creams, lotions, mascaras, eye creams and shadows, makeup bases, nail whiteners, etc. Used in making candles, crayons and polishes. Alternatives: Paraffin; vegetable oils and fats; ceresin, made from the mineral ozokerite (replaces beeswax in candle making); carnauba wax from the Brazilian palm tree (used in many cosmeticand in the manufacture of rubber, phonograph records, in waterproofing and writing inks); synthetic beeswax.

BENZOIC ACID: In almost all vertebrates and in berries. In mouthwashes, de odorants, creams, aftershave lotions, perfumes, foods, beverages. Alternatives: gum benzoin (tincture) from the aromatic balsamic resin from trees grown in China, Sumatra, Thailand and Cambodia.

BETA CAROTENE: Provitamin A. Carotene. Found in many animal tissues an in all plants. Used as a coloring in cosmetics and in the manufacture of Vitami A.

BIOTIN: Vitamin H. Vitamin B Factor. In every living cell and in larger amounts in milk and yeast. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, creams. Alternatives: plant sources.

BLOOD: This should be obvious but if it isn't.... From any slaughtered animal. Used in cheese making, foam rubber, intravenous feedings, medicines and as adhesive in plywood. Possibly in foods as lecithin (see choline bitarate). Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources.

BOAR BRISTLES: Hair from wild or captive hogs. In "natural" toothbrushes, hairbrushes, bath brushes, cosmetic brushes and shaving brushes. Alternatives: vegetable fibers, nylon.

BONE ASH: Bone Earth. The ash of burned bones, used as a fertilizer, in making ceramics and in cleaning and polishing compounds.

BONEBLACK: Bone Charcoal. A black pigment containing about 10% charcoal made by roasting bones in an airtight container. Used in aquarium filters and in refining cane sugar. In eye shadows, polishes.

BONE CHARCOAL: See Boneblack

BONE EARTH: See Bone Ash

BONE MEAL: See Animal Bones

CALCIFEROOL: Vitamin D. Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2, Ergosterol, provitarnin D2, Calciferool). Vitamin D3. Vitamin D can come from fish-liver oil, eggs, milk, butter. Vitamin D2 is made by irradiating ergosterol, a provitamin from plants or yeast. Vitamin D3 is from fish-liver oil. In creams, lotions, other cosmetics, vitamins. Alternatives sunshine, plant sources, synthetics.

CALCIUM CARBONATE: Calcite. Aragonite. A white powder or colorless, crystalline compund, found mainly in limestone, marble and chalk, bones, teeth, shells and plant ash.

CALCIUM HYDROXIDE: Slaked lime, a white crystalline compund prepared by the action of water on Calcium Oxide, used in making alkalies, bleaching powder, etc.

CALCIUM OXIDE: a white soft, caustic solid, prepared by heating Calcium Carbonate; lime: used in making mortar and plaster, and in ceramics.

CALCIUM PHOSPHATE: Any number of phosphates of calcium found in bones, teeth, and other animal tissues and used in medicine and in the manufacture of enamels, glass, cleaning agents, etc.

CAPRYLIC ACID: Can come from cow or goat milk. Also from palm and coco

nut oil, other plant oils. In perfumes, soaps.

CARBAMIDE: Urea. Imidazolidinyl Urea. Uric Acid. Found in urine and other body fluids. Also produced synthetically In deodorants, ammoniated dentifrices, mouthwashes, hair colorings, hand creams, lotions, shampoos, etc. Used to, "brown" baked goods such as pretzels.

CARMINE: Cochineal. Carminic Acid. E120. Red pigment from the crushed female cochineal insect. Reportedly 70,000 beetles may be killed to produce one pound of this red dye. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, red apple sauce and other foods. May cause allergic reactions. Alternatives: beet juice, no known toxicity (used in powders, rouges, shampoos); alkanet root, from the root of an herblike tree, no known toxicity (used as a red dye for inks, wines, lip balms, etc. and can be combined to make a copper or blue coloring).


CAROTENE: See Beta Carotene.

CASEIN: Caseinogen. Milk protein. In "non-dairy" creamers, many cosmetics, hair preparations, beauty masks. Alternatives: soy protein, vegetable milks.


CASTOR: Castoreum. From muskrat and beaver genitals. Used in perfumes and incense. Castor oil comes from the castor bean and is used in many cosmetics. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources.

CASTOREUM: See Castor.

CATGUT: Tough cord or thread made from the intestines of sheep, horses, etc. Used for surgical sutures and for stringing tennis rackets and musical instruments, etc. Alternatives: nylon & other man-made fibers.

CETYL ALCOHOL: Cetyl Lactate. Cetyl Myristate. Cetyl Palmitate. Ceteth-1, 02, etc. Wax found in spermaceti from sperm whales or dolphin. Used in lipsticks, mascaras, nail polish removers, hand lotions, cream, rouges and many other cosmetics, shampoos, hair lacquers and other hair products, deodorants, antiperspirants (US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients derived from marine mammals.) Alternatives: vegetable cetyl alcohol (ie. coconut) synthetic spermaceti.

CETYL LACTATE: See Cetyl Alcohol.

CETYL MYRISTATE/ CETETH-(#): See Cetyl Alcohol.

CETYL PALMITATE: See Spermaceti and Cetyl Alcohol.

CHOLESTERIN: Cholesterol. A steroid alcohol, especially in all animal fats and oils, nerve tissue, egg yolk and blood. Can be derived from lanolin . In cosmetics, eye creams, shampoos, etc. Alternatives: plant sources, synthetics.

CHOLESTEROL: See Cholesterin.

CHOLINE BITARTATE: Lecithin. In all living organisms. Frequently obtained for commercial purposes from eggs and soybeans (when stated soy lecithin). Also from nerve tissue, blood, milk, corn. Choline bitartrate, the basic constituent of lecithin, is in many animal and plant tissues or prepared synthetically. Lecithin can be in eye creams, lipsticks, liquid powders, hand creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, other cosmetics, candies, other foods and medicines.

CIVET. Obtained from the civet, a small mammal, by stimulating it, usually through torture. Civets are kept captive in cages in horrible conditions. Used in perfumes as a fixative.

COCHINEAL (E120): See Carmine.

COD LIVER OIL: Fish Liver Oil. Fish Livers. Used in Lubricating creams and lotions, vitamins and supplements. In milk fortified with Vitamin D. Alternatives: vegetable oils, yeast extract ergosterol, sunshine.

COLLAGEN: A fibrous protein in vertebrates. Usually derived from animal tissue. In cosmetics. Can't affect the skin's own collagen. Alternatives: soy protein, almond oil, amla oil (from Indian tree's fruit).

CORTICO STEROID: Cortisone. Hormone from cattle liver. Widely used in medicine. Alternatives: synthetics.

CORTISONE: See Cortico Steroid.

CYSTEINE, L-Form: Cystine. Two amino acids which can come from animals.

Used in hair products and creams, in some bakery products and wound healing formulations. Alternatives: Plant sources.

CYSTINE: See Cysteine, L-Form.

DNA/RNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Ribonucleic Acid. Polypeptides. Obtained from slaughterhouse wastes. In all living cells. Used in many protein shampoos and cosmetics. Alternatives: plant cells.


DEPANTHENOL: Panthenol. Vitamin B Complex Factor. Provitarnin B5. Carl, come from animal or plant sources or synthetics. In shampoos, foods, supplements, emollients, etc.

DIGLYCERIDES: Monoglycerides. Glycerides. From animal fat. In margarines, cake mixes, confectionaries, foods, peanut butter, non-dairy coffee creamer, cos, metics, etc. Glycerin. Alternatives: vegetable monoglycerides and diglycerides, synthetics.

DOWN: Goose or duck insulating feathers. Often from slaughtered or cruelly exploited geese. Used in pillows and as an insulator in quilts, parkas and sleeping bags. Bad in cold, wet weather as it packs down. Alternatives: many polyester and man-made substitutes, superior in many ways; Kapok (silky fibers from the seeds of some tropical trees); milkweed seed pod fibers.

DUODENUM SUBSTANCES: From the digestive tracts of cattle and swine. In some vitamins and medicines. Alternatives: vegetarian vitamins, synthetics.

E120: See Carmine.


EGG PROTEIN: In shampoos, skin preparations, etc. Alternatives: plant pr teins.

ELASTIN: Found in the neck ligaments and aorta of bovine. Similar to collagen. Can't affect the skin's own elasticity. Alternatives: synthetics, proteins from plant tissues.

ERGISTEROL: See Calciferool.

ERGOCALCIFEROL: See Calciferool.

ESTRADIOL: Estrone. Estrogen. From cow ovaries and pregnant mares' urine. Considered a drug. Can have harmful systemic effects if used by children. Used for reproductive problems and in birth control pills. In creams and lotions. Has no effect in the creams as a "nourishing" factor and simple vegetable source creams are considered better. Alternatives: Oral contraceptives marketed today are usually based on synthetic steroids. Phytoestrogens (from plants) are being researched currently.

ESTROGEN: See Estradiol.

ESTRONE: See Estradiol.

FATTY ACIDS: Can be one or any mixture of liquid and solid acids, caprylic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, stearic , behenic. Used in bubble baths, lipsticks, soaps, detergents, cosmetics, shampoos, foods. Alternatives: vegetable-derived acids, soy lecithin, safflower oil, bitter almond oil, sunflower oil, etc.

FEATHERS: Down. Keratin. Generally from exploited and/or slaughtered birds. Can be used as ornaments in whole or can be ground up in shampoos, etc.

FISH LIVER(S): See Cod Liver Oil.

FISH LIVER OIL: See Cod Liver Oil.

FISH OIL: Marine Oil. From fish or marine mammals (including porpoises). Used in soap making, candles, lubricants, paints and as a shortening (especially in some margarines). US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients derived from marine mammals.

FISH SCALES: Used in shimmery makeups (eye, etc.). Garbage cans full of scales are sold to manufacturers. Alternatives: mica, rayon.

FLETAN OIL: Rare ingredient derived from fish liver which includes lecithin, Vitamin A and Vitamin D.

FUR: Hopefully speaks for itself.

GELATIN: Gel. Protein obtained by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments or bones with water, from cattle and hogs. Used in shampoos, face masks, other cosmetics. Used as a thickener for fruit gelatins and puddings Uello-brand desserts). In candies, marshmallows, cakes, ice cream, yogurts. On photographic film as a coating and in vitamins as capsules. Sometimes used to assist in "clearing" wines. Alternatives: algae and seaweed (carrageen/ Irish Moss, algin, agar-agar, kelp), Gelozone, used in jellies, plastics, medicines, pectin from fruit, dextrins, locust bean gum and cotton gum. Marshmallows were originally made from the root of the marshmallow plant.

GEL: See Gelatin,

GLUTAMIC ACID: An amino acid found widely in plant and animal tissue. Used as food seasoning and as an antioxidant in cosmetics.

GLYCERIDES: See Diglycerides.

GLYCERIN: Glycerine. Glycerol. Polyglycerol. Polytethylene Glycol (PEG). A byproduct of soap manufacture (normally used animal fat). In cosmetics, foods, mouthwashes, toothpastes, soaps, ointments, medicines, lubricants, transmission and brake fluids, plastics. Alternatives: vegetable or vegetable glycerin, a by-product of vegetable oil soap; derivatives of seaweed, petroleum.

GLYCERINE: See Glycerin,

GLYCEROL: See Diglycerides.


GUANINE: Pearl Essence. Obtained from scales of fish. Constituent of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid and is found in all animal and plant tissues. In shampoos, nail polish, other cosmetics. Alternatives: leguminous plants, synthetics.

HIDE GLUE: Same as gelatin but of a cruder, more impure form. Alternatives: clextrins and synthetic petrochemical-based adhesives.

HONEY. Food for bees, made by bees. Still a sugar, too concentrated for humans. Contains toxins harmful to humans. Can cause allergic reactions. In cosmetics, foods. Alternatives: Maple syrup, date sugar, syrups made from grains.

HORSE HAIR AND OTHER ANIMAL HAIR: In some blankets mattresses, brushes, furniture, etc. Alternatives: vegetable and man-made fibers.

HYDROLYZED ANIMAL PROTEIN: In cosmetics, especially shampoos and hair treatments. Alternatives: soy protein, other vegetable proteins, amla oil (from an Indian tree's fruit).

HYDROLYZED MILK PROTEIN: Milk Protein. From cows'milk. In cosmetics, shampoos, moisturizers, conditioners, etc. Alteratives: soy protein, other plant proteins.


INSULIN: From the pancreas of hogs and oxen. Used by millions of diabetics daily. Alternatives: synthetics, human insulin grown in a lab, diet when possible.

ISINGLASS: A form of gelatin prepared from the internal membranes of fish bladders. In foods and sometimes used in "clearing" wines and beers. Alternatives: bentonite clay, "Japanese isinglass". Isinglass is also a mineral, mica, used in cosmetics.

ISOPROPYL MYRISTATE: Myristate Acid. Myristyl. In most animal and vegetable fats. In butter acids. Used in shampoos, creams, cosmetics, food flavorings. Alternatives: nut butters, oil of lovage, coconut oil, extract from seed kernels of nutmeg, etc.

KERATIN: From the ground-up horns, hoofs, feathers, quills and hair of various creatures. In hair rinses, shampoos, permanent wave solutions. Alternatives: almond oil, soy protein, amla oil (from an Indian tree's fruit), rosemary, nettle. Rosemary and nettle give body and strand strength to hair.

L-FORM: See Cysteine.

L-LACTIC ACID: Lactic Acid (a by-product of the slaughterhouse). Produced by the fermentation of lactose when milk sours or from sucrose and some other carbohydrates by the action of certain microorganisms. Can be found in blood and muscle tissue. In skin fresheners, adhesives, plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, sour milk, beer, sauerkraut, pickles and other food products made by bacterial fermentation. Used in foods and beverages as an acidulant, flavoring and preservative.

LACTIC ACID: See L-Lactic Acid.

LACTOSE: Milk Sugar. Milk of Mammals. In eye lotions, foods, tablets, cosmetics, baked goods, medicines, shampoos. Alternatives: plant milk sugars.

LANOLIN: Lanolin Acid. Lanolin Alcohols (Sterol, Triterpene Alcohol, Aliphatic Alcohol). Wool Fat. Laneth-5, -10, etc. Lanogene. Lanosterol. Isopropyl Lanolate. A product of the oil glands of sheep, extracted from their wool. In many skin care products and cosmetics and in medicines. Some cosmetic companies won't use it because it commonly causes allergic contact skin rashes, and also they consider it to be a cheap filler. Vegetable sources are thought to be better moisturizers; lanolin is too greasy, waterproof and sealing - skin can't breathe.

LANOLIN ACID: See Lanolin.


LANOSTEROL: See Lanolin.

LARD: Fat from hog abdomens. In shaving creams, soaps, cosmetics, baked goods and other foods. Hard to digest. Alternatives: vegetable fats or oils.

LEATHER: Suede, Calfskin. Sheepskin. Alligator. Kid. Euphemism for animal skin. The use of and sale of it subsidizes the meat industry. Used to make wallets, handbags, belts, furniture, and car upholstery, shoes, coats, etc. Alternatives: natural materials such as cotton and canvas. Also man-made materials such as nylon and vinyl.

LECITHIN: See Choline Bitartrate.

LINOLEIC ACID: An essential fatty acid. In cosmetics, vitamins.

LIPASE: Enzyme from the stomachs and tongue glands of calves, kids and lambs. Probably in some vitamins. Alternatives: vegetable enzymes.

LIPOIDS/ LIPIDS: Fat and fatlike substances which occur in animals and plants.

LUNA SPONGE: Sea Sponge. A plantlike animal that lives in the sea and is becoming scarce, Alternatives: man-made sponges.

MARINE OIL: See Fish Oil.

METHIONINE: An essential amino acid found in various proteins. Used as a texturizer in creams.

MILK OF MAMMALS: If this isn't already obvious, see Lactose.

MILK PROTEIN: Hydrolyzed Milk Protein. From cows' milk. In cosmetics, shampoos, moisturizers, conditioners, etc. Alteratives: soy protein, other plant proteins.

MILK SUGAR: See Lactose.

MINK OIL: From minks. In cosmetics, creams, etc. Alternatives: vegetable oils and emollients (ie. avocado, almond oil, jojoba).

MONOGLYCERIDES: See Diglycerides.

MUSK: Obtained from the genitals of the Northern Asian small hornless deer. In perfumes and food flavorings. Can cause allergic reactions. Alternatives: labdanum (oil which comes from various rockrose shrubs) - no known toxicity. Other plants have a musky scent also.

MYRISTATE ACID: See Isopropyl Myristate.

MYRISTYL: See Isopropyl Myristate.

NATURAL FLAVOR: Natural Flavoring. Natural Source. Can mean animal, vegetable or mineral source. Most often in the health food industry, it means an animal source, especially in cosmetics (ie. animal elastin (see), animal glands, fat, protein, oil). Be wary of this term. Find out exact source.

NATURAL SOURCE: See Natural Flavor.

NUCLEIC ACID: In the nucleus of all living cells. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, conditioners, vitamins, supplements, etc. Alternatives: plant sources.

OCTYL DODECANOL: Mixture of solid waxy alcohols. Primarily from stearyl alcohol.

OLEAN®: Olestra®. A man made fat substitude that contains fatty acids. Originally planned to market as a drug. Depletes body of, and prevents absorbtion of vitamins. In some potato chips and other fried foods. Alternatives: plant sources.

OLEIC ACID: Oleth-2, -3, -20, etc. Oleyl Alcohol. Oleamine. Oleyl Betaine. Obtained from various animal and vegetable fats and oils, Is usually obtained commercially from inedible tallow, sometimes synthesized from petroleum. In foods, soft soaps, bar soaps, permanent wave solutions, shampoos, creams, nail polish, lipsticks, liquid makeups, many other skin preparations. Alternatives: coconut oil; see alternatives for Animal Oils and Fats.

OLESTRA®: See Olean®.



OX BILE: Oxgall. From castrated bovines. In creams.

OXGALL: See Ox Bile.

PALMITATE: Palmitic Acid. Fatty Acids. From fats, oils, mixed with stearic acid. Occurs in many animal fats and plant oils. In shampoos, shaving soaps, creams. Alternatives: palm oil and other vegetable source.

PALMITIC ACID: See Palmitate.

PANTHENOL: See Depanthenol.


PEPSIN: Obtained from the stomachs of hogs. A clotting agent. In some cheeses and vitamins. Same uses and alternatives as rennet.

PLACENTA: See Afterbirth.





POLYSORBATES: Derivatives of fatty acids. In cosmetics, foods.


PRISTANE: Obtained from the liver oil of sharks and from whale ambergris. See Squalene. Used as a lubricant and anticorrosive agent. In cosmetics. (US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients derived from marine mammals.) Alternatives: plant oils, synthetics.

PROGESTERONE: A steroid hormone used in face creams. Can have adverse systemic effects. Alternatives: synthetics.

PROPOLIS: A resinous substance collected from various plants by bees and used in the construction of their hives. In toothpastes, shampoos, deodorants, supplements, etc.

PROVITAMIN A: See Beta Carotene.

PROVITAMIN B5: See Depanthenol.

QUATERNIUM 27: Tallow. Stearamide. Stearate. Stearic Acid. Stearin. Fat from cows, sheep, etc. (could be dogs and cats from shelters). Most often refers to a fatty substance taken from the stomachs of pigs. Can be harsh, irritating. Used in cosmetics, soaps, lubricants, candles, hairsprays, conditioners, deodorants, creams. Alternatives: can be found in many vegetable fats (ie. coconut).

RENNET: Rennin. From calves' stomachs. Used in cheesemaking, rennet custard (junket) and in many coagulated dairy products. Alternatives: microbial coagulating agents, bacteria culture, lemon juice.

RENNIN: See Rennet.

RETINOL: See Acetate.



ROYAL JELLY: Secretion of the throat glands of the honeybee workers that is fed to the larvae in a colony and to all queens' larvae. No proven value in cosmetic preparations. Alternatives: aloe vera, cornfrey, other plant derivatives.

SABLE BRUSHES: From the fur of sables (weasel-like mammals). Used to make cosmetic brushes. Alternatives: synthetic furs and fibers.

SEA SPONGE: See Luna Sponge.

SEA TURTLE OIL: Turtle Oil. From the muscles and genitals of giant sea turtles. In soaps, skin creams, nail creams, other cosmetics. Alternatives: Vegetable emollients. (See Alternatives for Animal Oils and Fats.)

SHEEPSKIN: See Leather.

SHELLAC: Obtained from the bodies of the female scale insect Tachardia lacca. Shellac is used as varnish, as a coating on wood and plaster, in electrical insulation, and in sealing wax.

SILK: Shiny fiber made by silkworms to form their cocoons. Boiled or roasted in their cocoons to get the silk. Used in cloth and silk screening. Alternatives: milkweed seed pod fibers, nylon, silk-cotton tree and ceiba tree filaments (kapok), rayon, man-made silks. Other fine cloth can be and is used for silk screening. Taffeta can be made from silk or nylon.

SILK POWDER: Obtained from the secretion of the silkworm. Used as a coloring agent in face powders, soaps, etc. Causes severe allergic reactions; systemic reactions if inhaled or ingested.

SNAILS: Crushed. In some cosmetics.

SPERMACETI: Cetyl Palmitate. Sperm Oil. Waxy oil derived from the sperm whale's head or from dolphins. In skin creams, ointments, shampoos, candles, many margarines. Used in the leather industry. May become rancid and cause irritations (US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients derived from marine mammals.) Alternatives: Synthetic spermaceti, jojobas oil and other vegetable emollients.

SPERM OIL: See Spermaceti.

SQUALANE: Squalene. Obtained from shark liver oil. Lubricant and perfume fixative. Alternatives: synthetics.

SQUALENE: Obtained from shark liver oil or vegetable oil. An emollient from a "natural source". A precursor of cholesterol in biosynthesis. In cosmetics, moisturizers, hair dyes. Alternatives: vegetable emollients (olive oil, wheat germ oil, rice bran oil, etc.).


STEARIC ACID: See Quaterniun 27.

STEARYL ALCOHOL: Stenol. A mixture of solid alcohols; can be prepared from sperm whale oil. In medicines, creams, rinses, shampoos, etc. (US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients derived from marine mammals.) Alternatives: plant tissues, synthetics.

ST ENOL: See Stearyl Alcohol.

STEROID: Sterol. From various animal glands or from plant tissues. Steroids include sterols. Sterols are alcohols from animals or plants (ie. cholesterol). Used in hormone preparations. In creams, lotions, hair conditioners, fragrances, etc. Alternatives: plant tissues, synthetics.

STEROL: See Steroid.

SUEDE: See Leather.

TALLOW: Tallowate. Tallow Fatty Alcohol. Stearic Acid. Rendered beef or sheep fat. May cause eczema and blackheads. In wax paper, crayons, margarines, paints, rubber, lubricants, candles, soaps, shampoos, lipsticks, shaving creams, other cosmetics. Alternatives: vegetable tallow (animal tallow usually used commercially), Japan tallow, paraffin, ceresin. (See alternatives for Beeswax.)

TALLOWATE: See Tallow.


TURTLE OIL: See Sea Turtle Oil.

UREA: See Carbamide.

URIC ACID: See Carbamide.

VITAMIN A: Retinol. Acetate and Palmitate. (See Palmitic Acid.)

VITAMIN B COMPLEX FACTOR: Provitamin B5. Depanthenol. Panthenol.


VITAMIN B12: Usually from an animal source. Some vegetarian B12 fortified yeasts and analogs available. Some vegetarian B12 vitamins are in a stomach base. Plant algae discovered containing B12, now in supplement form (spirulina). Also, B12 is produced in a healthy body.

VITAMIN D: See Calciferool.

VITAMIN H: See Biotin.

OTHER VITAMINS: (Choline, Biotin, Inositol, Riboflavin, etc.). Many other vitamins can come from animal sources. Alternatives: vegetarian vitamins, plant and mineral sources.

WHEY: From milk. Usually in cakes, cookies, candies, cheese. Alternatives: soybean whey.

WOOL: From sheep (in the US, mostly from slaughtered ones). Used in clothing, including blends. Ram lambs and old "wool" sheep are slaughtered for their meat and last shearing. Sheep are transported without food or water in extreme heat and cold. Legs are broken, eyes injured, etc. Sheep are bred to be unnaturally woolly. Inferior sheep are killed. Shearing DOES hurt the sheep. They are pinned down violently, sheared roughly. Their skin is cut up. Every year, hundreds of thousands of shorn sheep die from exposure to cold. Natural predators of sheep (wolves, coyotes, eagles, etc.) are poisoned, trapped and shot. In the US, overgrazing by cattle and sheep is turning more than 150 million acres of land into desert. "Natural" wool raising uses enormous amounts of resources and energy (to breed, raise, feed, shear, transport and slaughter the sheep). Many people are allergic to wool. Alternatives: cotton, cotton flannel, linen, man made fibers.

WOOL FAT: See Lanol.

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